Cross-cultural Virtual Group Work: Cooperation vs. Collaboration (Case of Project ‘X-Culture’)
The article seeks to determine when co-operation and when collaboration should be used during cross-cultural virtual group work. For this purpose various concepts are analyzed: cross-cultural communication, virtual setting, co-operation and collaboration. An empirical quantitative research is conducted for the worldwide academic project ‘X-Culture’. Conducted research summarises the conclusions about theory’s applicability in practice. Analysis reveales that majority of processes indicated in scholarly literature, as key aspects leading to collaboration throughout group development stages, are present in ‘X-Culture’ project. This research reveals the main differences between cooperative and collaborative group work, explaining the outcomes of both. In addition, it explains which one is applicable grounded on desired goals. Moreover, the concepts are linked to cross-cultural processes. Theoretical significance of the paper underlines the importance of building projects via collaborative or cooperative tasks considering desired goals. Practical significance offers guidelines for professional and academic institutions that organize virtual cross-cultural group work.